Monday, January 17, 2011

Timeline of The History of Alchemy

This is a provisional project to produce a timeline of key events in the history of alchemy.

For the most part it consists of dated events, but as the dates of many important events have not yet been established by historical research, this timeline will not give a clear picture of alchemy history if it restricted itself to definatively dated events.

Consequently some events which are key to the development of alchemy and do not yet have established dates but only a range or rough estimate, have been included.

These are identified by gray text so that they can be identified.

This timeline is still incomplete and any corrections or additions would be more than welcome.


1140 |
1141 |
1142 |
1143 |
1144 | Earliest dated Western alchemical treatise - Robert of Chester - De Compositione Alchemiae
1145 |
1146 |
1147 |
1148 | Hildegard of Bingen writing on Science
1149 |
1150 | Turba Philosophorum translated from Arabic
1151 |
1152 |
1153 |
1154 |
1155 |
1156 |
1157 |
1158 |
1159 |
1160 |
1161 |
1162 |
1163 |
1164 |
1165 |
1166 |
1167 |
1168 |
1169 |
1170 |
1171 |
1172 |
1173 |
1174 |
1175 |
1176 |
1177 |
1178 |
1179 |
1180 |
1181 |
1182 |
1183 |
1184 |
1185 |
1186 |
1187 |
1188 |
1189 |
1190 |
1191 |
1192 |
1193 |
1194 |
1195 |
1196 |
1197 |
1198 |
1199 |
1200 |
1201 |
1202 |
1203 |
1204 |
1205 |
1206 |
1207 |
1208 |
1209 |
1210 |
1211 |
1212 |
1213 |
1214 |
1215 |
1216 |
1217 |
1218 |
1219 |
1220 |
1221 |
1222 |
1223 |
1224 |
1225 | Michael Scot - Liber Introductorius, Liber Particularis
1226 |
1227 |
1228 |
1229 |
1230 | Bartholomew Anglicus - De Rerum Proprietatibus
1231 | First mention of alchemy in French literature - Roman de la Rose
1232 |
1233 |
1234 |
1235 | Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, discusses transmutation of metals in De Artibus Liberalibus and De Generatione Stellarum
1236 |
1237 |
1238 |
1239 |
1240 | The Dominican Thomas of Cantimpre mentions alchemy in his Liber de natura rerum
1241 |
1242 |
1243 |
1244 |
1245 |
1246 |
1247 |
1248 |
1249 |
1250 | Vincent de Beauvais - Speculum Maius (This encyclopaedia mentions alchemy in many places)
1251 |
1252 |
1253 |
1254 |
1255 |
1256 | King Alfonso the Wise of Castile orders translation of alchemical texts from Arabic. He is supposed to have written Tesoro a treatise on the Philosophers' stone
1257 | Franciscan friar Bonadventura d'Iseo's 'Liber Compostella' provides some alchemical recipes
1258 |
1259 |
1260 |
1261 |
1262 |
1263 |
1264 | Albertus Magnus, Bishop of Regensburg, writes De Mineralibus
1265 |
1266 | Roger Bacon - Opus Maius
1267 | Roger Bacon - Opus Tertium
1268 |
1269 |
1270 | Thomas Aquinas is sympathetic to the idea of alchemical transmution in his Summa Theologia
1271 |
1272 | Provincal Chapter at Narbonne forbade the Franciscans to practice Alchemy
1273 | Dominican Order at Pest warned friars not to study or teach Alchemy
1274 |
1275 | Ramon Lull - Ars Magna. Aurora Consurgens possibly written by Thomas Aquinas
1276 |
1277 |
1278 |
1279 |
1280 |
1281 |
1282 |
1283 |
1284 |
1285 |
1286 |
1287 |
1288 |
1289 |
1290 |
1291 |
1292 |
1293 |
1294 |
1295 |
1296 |
1297 |
1298 |
1299 |
1300 | Arnald of Villanova writes a number of important treatises on alchemy Quaestiones tam esseentiales quam accidentales, Epistola supe alchemia ad regem Neapolitanum, De secretis naturae, Exempla de arte philosophorum
1301 |
1302 |
1303 |
1304 |
1305 |
1306 |
1307 |
1308 |
1309 |
1310 | Dante begins work on his Divine Comedy
1311 |
1312 |
1313 | Friars Minors' Constitution generales antique forbade the friars to practice alchemy
1314 | Destruction of the Knights Templar
1315 |
1316 |
1317 | Pope John XXII's Papal Bull against alchemical counterfeit Spondet quas non exhibent. Cistercians ban alchemy.
1318 | The monk Adolf Meutha driven from the Cistercian Monastery at Walkenried for practising alchemy
1319 |
1320 | John Dastin, the alchemist, writes his alchemical letters to Pope John XXII
1321 |
1322 |
1323 | Dominicans in France prohibit the teaching of alchemy at the University of Paris, and demand the burning of alchemical writings
1324 |
1325 |
1326 |
1327 |
1328 |
1329 | King Edward III requests Thomas Cary to find two alchemists who have escaped, and to find the secret of their art
1330 | Pope John XXII gives funds to his physician to set up a laboratory for a "certain secret work"
1331 |
1332 |
1333 |
1334 |
1335 | Petrus Bonus of Ferrara Pretiosa margarita novella
1336 |
1337 |
1338 |
1339 | Pope Benedict XII orders an investigation into the alchemical activities of some clerics and monks
1340 |
1341 |
1342 |
1343 |
1344 |
1345 |
1346 |
1347 |
1348 |
1349 |
1350 |
1351 |
1352 |
1353 |
1354 |
1355 |
1356 | Pope Innocent VI imprisons the Catalan alchemist John of Rupescissa
1357 | Hortulanus' commentary on the Emerald Tablet of Hermes
1358 | Francesco Petrarch discussed alchemy in De remediis utriusque fortunae
1359 |
1360 |
1361 |
1362 |
1363 |
1364 |
1365 |
1366 |
1367 |
1368 |
1369 |
1370 | William Langland's Piers Plowman criticises alchemists as deceivers.
1371 |
1372 |
1373 |
1374 | John of Livania, Canon in Trier, writes three books on the vanity of alchemy.
1375 |
1376 | The Dominican - Directorium Inquisitorum, the textbook for inquisitors, places alchemists among magicians and wizards.
1377 |
1378 |
1379 |
1380 | King Charles V the Wise issues a decree forbidding alchemical experiments
1381 |
1382 |
1383 |
1384 |
1385 |
1386 |
1387 |
1388 | Geoffrey Chaucer - The Canterbury Tales discussed alchemy in the Canon's Yeoman's Tale
1389 |
1390 |
1391 |
1392 |
1393 |
1394 |
1395 |
1396 |
1397 |
1398 |
1399 |
1400 |
1401 |
1402 |
1403 | King Henry IV of England issues a prohibition of alchemy and to stop counterfeit money
1404 |
1405 |
1406 |
1407 |
1408 |
1409 |
1410 |
1411 |
1412 |
1413 |
1414 |
1415 | Early German MS Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit paralleling the Christ and the Philosophers' stone
1416 |
1417 |
1418 |
1419 |
1420 | Splendor Solis manuscript
1421 |
1422 |
1423 |
1424 |
1425 |
1426 |
1427 |
1428 |
1429 |
1430 |
1431 |
1432 |
1433 |
1434 |
1435 |
1436 |
1437 |
1438 |
1439 |
1440 |
1441 |
1442 |
1443 |
1444 |
1445 |
1446 |
1447 |
1448 |
1449 |
1450 | Beginning of printing. Cosimo de Medici asks Marsilio Ficine to set up the Platonic academy in Florence
1451 |
1452 |
1453 |
1454 |
1455 |
1456 | 12 men petition Henry VI of England for a license to practise alchemy
1457 |
1458 |
1459 |
1460 |
1461 |
1462 |
1463 |
1464 |
1465 |
1466 |
1467 |
1468 |
1469 |
1470 | Der Antichrist und die funfzehn Zeichnen (the book of the antichrist) associates alchemists with demons and Satan
1471 | George Ripley Compound of Alchemy. Ficino's translation of the Corpus Hermeticum
1472 |
1473 |
1474 |
1475 |
1476 | George Ripley - Medulla Alchemiae
1477 | Thomas Norton writes his Ordinall
1478 |
1479 |
1480 |
1481 |
1482 |
1483 |
1484 | Avicenna's - De Anima. Hieronymous Bosch - Garden of Earthly Delights
1485 | Geber Summa perfectionis
1486 |
1487 |
1488 | The figure of Hermes Trismegistus is put into the mosaic pavement in Sienna Cathedral
1489 |
1490 |
1491 |
1492 |
1493 |
1494 | Sebastian Brandt - The Ship of Fools discussed methods used by cheating alchemists
1495 |
1496 |
1497 | Tractatus contra alchymistas written by a Dominican questions the genuineness of alchemical gold
1498 |
1499 | Hypnerotomachia Poliphili
1500 |
1501 |
1502 |
1503 |
1504 |
1505 |
1506 |
1507 |
1508 |
1509 |
1510 |
1511 |
1512 |
1513 |
1514 |
1515 |
1516 |
1517 |
1518 |
1519 | Braunschweig's - Das Buch zu distillieren
1520 |
1521 |
1522 |
1523 |
1524 |
1525 |
1526 |
1527 |
1528 |
1529 |
1530 | Georgius Agricola - Bermannus, book on mining and extraction of ores
1531 | Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa's - Three Books of Occult Philosophy
1532 | Earliest manuscript of the Splendor Solis
1533 |
1534 |
1535 |
1536 |
1537 |
1539 |
1539 |
1540 | Vannoccio Biringuccio - De la Pirotecnia
1541 | In hoc Volumine De Alchemia - First alchemical compendium
1542 |
1543 |
1544 |
1545 |
1546 | Petrus Bonus' - Pretiosa Margarita Novella of 1335 printed
1547 |
1548 |
1549 |
1550 | Rosarium Philosophorum published
1551 |
1552 |
1553 |
1554 |
1555 | First edition of Alessio Piemontese - Secreti
1556 | Georgius Agricola - De re Metallica
1557 |
1558 |
1559 |
1560 | Adam von Bodenstein begins his work of editing various writings of Paracelsus. Giambattista della Porta - Magia naturalis
1561 | Peter Perna prints the compendium of 53 alchemical treatises, Verae alchemiae artisque metallicae
1562 |
1563 |
1564 | Giovanni Battista Nazari's - Il metamorfosi metallico et humano. John Dee's - Hieroglyphic Monad
1565 |
1566 |
1567 |
1568 |
1569 |
1570 |
1571 |
1572 | Peter Perna prints the compendium Alchemiae quam vocant
1573 |
1574 | Peter Perna prints the collected works of Paracelsus in Latin.
1575 |
1576 |
1577 |
1578 |
1579 |
1580 | Rabbi Loew of Prague makes the Golem
1581 |
1582 | Reusner - Pandora
1583 |
1584 |
1585 |
1586 |
1587 |
1588 |
1589 | Edward Kelley embarkes on his public alchemical transmutations in Prague
1590 |
1591 | Reprinting of John Dee's - Hieroglyphic Monad
1592 |
1593 |
1594 |
1595 | Andreas Libavius - Alchymia
1596 |
1597 |
1598 |
1599 | First appearance of a work of Basil Valentine. Book of Lambspring included in Nicolas Barnaud's - Triga Chemica
1600 | Giordano Bruno executed
1601 |
1602 | Publication of the first volumes of the compendium of alchemical texts Theatrum Chemicum
1603 |
1604 | Basil Valentine's - The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony. Simon Studion's - Naometria ms. Novum lumen chemicum
1605 |
1606 |
1607 |
1608 |
1609 | Main edition of Heinrich Khunrath's - Amphitheatrum sapientiae aeternae. Oswald Croll - Basilica chemica
1610 | Jean Beguin - Tyrocinium chymicum
1611 | Ben Jonson's play The Alchemist
1612 | Nicolas Flamel - The Explication of the Hieroglyphic Figures (first publication). Martin Ruland's - Lexicon Alchemiae. Jacob Boehme - Aurora
1613 |
1614 | Fama fraternitatis. Isaac Casaubon redates the works of Hermes Trismegistus
1615 | Confessio fraternitatis - Steffan Michelspacher - Cabala, Spiegel der Kunst unnd Natur
1616 | Christian Rosenkreutz - Chymische Hochzeit
1617 | First volume of Robert Fludd's - Utriusque Cosmi historia
1618 | Theophilus Schweighardt - Speculum sophicum rhodo-stauroticum . Michael Maier's - Atalanta Fugiens
1619 | Siebmacher's - The Waterstone of the Wise
1620 |
1621 |
1622 |
1623 | Jean d'Espagnet - Enchiridion Physicae Restitutae
1624 | Daniel Stoltzius Von Stoltzenbert's - Viridarium Chymicum
1625 | Musaeum Hermeticum
1626 |
1627 |
1628 |
1629 | Robert Fludd's - Summum Bonum
1630 |
1631 | Arthur Dee - Fasciculus Chemicus in Latin
1632 |
1633 |
1634 |
1635 |
1636 |
1637 |
1638 |
1639 |
1640 | Albaro Alonso Barba - Art of Metals
1641 |
1642 |
1643 |
1644 |
1645 |
1646 |
1647 |
1648 |
1649 |
1650 | Arthur Dee - Fasciculus Chemicus issued in English
1651 | John French - The Art of Distillation
1652 | Elias Ashmole - Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum. English translation of Fama and Confessio edited by Thomas Vaughan.
1653 |
1654 | Pierre Borel - Bibliotheca Chimica
1655 |
1656 |
1657 |
1658 |
1659 |
1660 |
1661 |
1662 |
1663 |
1664 |
1665 |
1666 | John Frederick Helvetius' account of the transmutation in the Hague. Marcantonio Crassellame - Lux Obnubilata
1667 | Eirenaeus Philalethes - An open entrance to the closed palace of the King
1668 |
1669 |
1670 |
1671 |
1672 | Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques
1673 | William Cooper begins to publish works on alchemy especially those of Eirenaeus Philalethes
1674 | Christian Knorr von Rosenroth's - Kabbala Denudata
1675 |
1676 |
1677 | Mutus Liber
1678 |
1679 |
1680 |
1681 |
1682 | Johann Georg Gichtel's edition of the collected works of Jakob Böhme
1683 |
1684 |
1685 |
1686 |
1687 |
1688 |
1689 |
1690 | Publication of the English translation of the Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz.
1691 |
1692 |
1693 |
1694 |
1695 |
1696 |
1697 |
1698 |
1699 |
1700 |
1701 |
1702 | Jean-Jacques Manget - Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa (alchemical compendium)
1703 |
1704 |
1705 |
1706 |
1707 |
1708 |
1709 |
1710 | Samuel Richter begins to form the Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross
1711 |
1712 |
1713 |
1714 |
1715 |
1716 |
1717 |
1718 |
1719 | Georg von Welling - Opus Mago-Cabalisticum (first edition)
1720 |
1721 |
1722 |
1723 | Anton Josef Kirchweger's - The Golden Chain of Homer
1724 |
1725 |
1726 |
1727 |
1728 | Friedrich Roth-Scholtz - Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum
1729 |
1730 |
1731 |
1732 |
1733 |
1734 |
1735 | Abraham Eleazar - Uraltes Chymisches Werck
1736 |
1737 |
1738 |
1739 |
1740 |
1741 |
1742 |
1743 |
1744 |
1745 |
1746 |
1747 |
1748 |
1749 |
1750 |
1751 |
1752 | Hermaphroditisches Sonn- und Monds-Kind
1753 |
1754 |
1755 |
1756 |
1757 |
1758 | Antoine-Joseph Pernety - Dictionnaire Mytho-Hermetique
1759 |
1760 |
1761 |
1762 |
1763 |
1764 |
1765 |
1766 |
1767 |
1768 |
1769 |
1770 |
1771 |
1772 |
1773 |
1774 |
1775 |
1776 | Adam Weishaupt forms the Order of Illuminati of Bavaria
1777 |
1778 |
1779 | Adam Michael Birkholz - Der Compass der Weisen
1780 |
1781 |
1782 |
1783 | James Price commits suicide after performing some alchemical experiments
1784 |
1785 | Geheime Figuren The Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians
1786 |
1787 |
1788 |
1789 |
1790 |
1791 |
1792 |
1793 |
1794 |
1795 |
1796 |
1797 |
1798 |
1799 |
1800 |
1801 |
1802 | Karl von Eckartshausen - Chemische Versuche

No comments:

Post a Comment